Based on MOLA data from the Mars Global Surveyor, this "false colour" colouration is a representation of global elevation differences mapped to a gradient. From white for the highest peaks, to red and yellow, to blue and purple for the lowest plains and basins.
Such a globe can allow someone to quickly get a feel of the planet's overall geology. Such as the enormous Mons, the smooth northern hemisphere or the enormous Hellas Planitia impact basin.
Like the LPF Mars globe, elevation features have been slightly exaggerated in the z-axis as to make more features other than the Mons more prominent, since to real scale most features would be imperceptible to human touch.